Technical Data

Standard Formulas

PRESSURE AND HEAD

Pressure (Ibs. per sq. in.) = (Head in feet X Specific Gravity) / 2.31
= (Head in ft.) X (Spec. Grav.) X .434

Head in feet = (lbs per sq. in) X 2.31) / (Specific Gravity)

TEMPERATURE

(1.8 X °C) + 32 = °F

.555 (°F – 32°) = °C

Degrees Kelvin – 273.2 = Degrees Centigrade

VELOCITY

Pipe Velocity (ft /see ) = [(408 X GPM) / (pipe diameter)2] X
[(.321 X GPM) / (pipe area)]

Velocity head (feet) = [(Pipe velocity. ft./sec.)2] / (64.4)

POWER

HP = [(T (Ft Lb) X RPM) / 520] / [(T (In Lb) X RPM) / 63025]

HP = [Disp (Gals) X RPM X PSI] / [1714 X EEF]

Horsepower X .746 = Kilowatts

Horsepower X 42.44 = BTU/Min

Metric Horsepower X .9863 = Horsepower

RPM = (120 X Frequency) / No. of Poles

PIPE FRICTION

  HAZEN AND WILLIAMS:

hf = 0.002083 L (100 / C)1.85 X [(gpm1.85) / (d4.8655)]

CONVERSION OF THERMOMETER READINGS

DEGREES CENTIGRADE TO DEGREES FAHRENHEIT

C F C F C F C F
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
-22
-20
-19
-18
-17
-16
-15
-14
-13
-12
-11
-10
-9
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
+1
2
3
4
-40.0
-36.4
-32.8
-29.2
-25.6
22.0
18.4
14.8
11.2
7.6
-4.0
-2.2
-0.4
+1.4
3.2
5.0
6.8
8.6
10.4
12.2
14.0
15.8
17.6
19.4
21.2
23.0
24.8
26.6
28.4
30.2
32.0
33.8
35.6
37.4
39.2
+5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
+41.0
42.8
44.6
46.4
48.2
50.0
51.8
53.6
55.4
57.2
59.0
60.8
62.6
64.4
66.2
68.0
69.8
71.6
73.4
75.2
77.0
78.8
80.6
82.4
84.2
86.0
87.8
89.6
91.4
93.2
95.0
96.8
98.6
100.4
102.2
+40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
+104.0
105.8
107.6
109.4
111.2
113.0
114.8
116.6
118.4
120.2
122.0
131.0
140.0
149.0
158.0
167.0
176.0
185.0
194.0
203.0
212.0
221.0
230.0
239.0
248.0
257.0
266.0
275.0
284.0
293.0
302.0
311.0
320.0
329.0
338.0
+175
180
185
190
195
200
205
210
215
220
225
230
235
240
245
250
255
260
265
270
275
280
285
290
295
300
305
310
315
320
325
330
335
340
345
+347
356
365
374
383
392
401
410
419
428
437
446
455
464
473
482
491
500
509
518
527
536
545
554
563
572
581
590
599
608
617
626
635
644
653

FITTING FRICTION LOSS ADD TO PIPE LENGTH

FIGURES GIVE EQUIVALENT IN FEET OF PIPE

PIPE SIZE (NPT) 3/8" 1/2" 3/4" 1" 1-1/4" 1-1/2" 2"
90° ELBOW
45° ELBOW
STRAIGHT TEE
GATE VALVE
ANGLE VALVE
GLOBE VALVE
0.80
0.40
2.50
0.25
4.00
7.00
1.00
0.50
3.00
0.30
6.50
12.00
1.50
0.80
3.60
0.36
9.50
17.20
1.80
1.00
4.60
0.46
12.00
22.50
2.40
1.30
6.40
0.64
16.00
32.00
2.90
1.60
7.20
0.72
19.50
36.00
3.60
2.00
9.60
0.96
22.50
48.00

VISCOSITY CONVERSION TABLE

*Poises and centipoises are given for oil
of .8 spec. gravity.
Relationship: centistokes x specific gravity = centipoises
SAYBOLT
UNIVERSAL
SSU
STOKES CENTI
STOCKES
POISES* CENTI*
POISES
ENGLER
SECONDS
REDWOOD
NO. 1
SECONDS
TYPICAL
LIQUIDS
AT 70°F
31
35
50
80
100
200
300
500
1,000
2,000
5,000
10,000
50.000
100,000
.010
.025
.074
.157
.202
.432
.654
1.10
2.16
4.40
10.8
21.6
108
216
1.00
2.56
7.40
15.7
20.2
43.2
65.4
110
220
440
1,080
2,160
10,800
21,600
.008
.020
.059
.126
.162
.346
.522
.88
1.73
3.52
8.80
17.0
88
173
.8
2.05
5.92
12.6
16.2
34.6
52.2
88.0
173
352
880
1,760
8,800
17,300
54
59
80
125
150
295
470
760
1,500
3,000
7,500
15,000
75,000
150,000
29
32.1
44.3
69.2
85.6
170
254
423
696
1,690
4,230
8,460
43,660
88,160
Water
Kerosene
No. 2 Fuel Oil
No. 4 Fuel Oil
Transformer Oil
Hydraulic Oil
SAE 10W Oil
SAE 10 Oil
SAE 20 Oil
SAE 30 Oil
SAE 50 Oil
SAE 60-70 Oil
Molasses B
Molasses C

AVERAGE ABSOLUTE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

Altitude Above Sea Level PSIA IN Hg
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
Heat of Fusion of Water
Heat of Vaporization of Water
14.7
14.4
14.2
13.9
13.7
13.2
12.7
12.2
11.7
11.3
144 BTU/Lb
970 BTU/Lb
29.9
29.4
28.9
28.3
27.8
26.8
25.9
24.9
24.0
23.1

CONVERSION TABLE

PRESSURE IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH TO FEET OF HEAD

 Pounds                  Ft. of
Pressure                  Head
 Pounds                  Ft. of
Pressure                  Head
 

1 ……………….. 2.31 2 ……………….. 4.62 3
……………….. 6.93 4 ……………….. 9.24 5
……………….. 11.6 6 ……………….. 13.9 7
……………….. 16.2 8 ……………….. 18.5 9
……………….. 20.8 10 ……………….. 23.1 11
……………….. 25.4 12 ……………….. 27.7 13
……………….. 30.0 14 ……………….. 32.3 15
……………….. 34.6 16 ……………….. 37.0 17
……………….. 39.3 18 ……………….. 41.6

 
 

19 ……………….. 43.9 20 ……………….. 46.2 35
……………….. 57.7 30 ……………….. 69.3 35
……………….. 80.8 40 ……………….. 92.4 45
……………….. 103.9 50 ……………….. 115.5 55
……………….. 127.0 60 ……………….. 138.6 65
……………….. 150.1 70 ……………….. 161.7 75
……………….. 173.2 80 ……………….. 184.8 85
……………….. 196.3 90 ……………….. 207.9 95
……………….. 219.4 100 ……………….. 230.9

 

PIPE FRICTION – WATER 60° F

FRICTION LOSS OF WATER IN FEET PER 100 FOOT LENGTH OF PIPE OR TUBE

NOTE:

  1. Values in bold are recommended for nominal operation
  2. Pipe values based on Hazen and Williams formula using C constant of
    100
  3. For new smooth pipe multiply above values by 71
  4. For plastic pipe multiply above values by 54
  5. Above pipe sizes are steel schedule 40
  6. For 15 yr old pipe multiply above values by 125
NOMINAL SIZE – (INSIDE DIAMETER)
GAL.
PER
MIN.
1/4"
ID
HOSE
1/8"
PIPE
(.269)
3/8"
ID
HOSE
1/4"
PIPE
(.364)
3/8"
PIPE
(.493)
1/2"
ID
HOSE
5/8"
PIPE
(.622)
3/4"
ID
HOSE
3/4"
ID
HOSE
3/4"
PIPE
(.824)
1"
PIPE
(1.049)
1 1/4"
PIPE
(1.380)
1 1/2"
PIPE
(1.610)
2"
PIPE
(2.067)
2 1/2"
PIPE
(2.469)
3"
PIPE
(3.068)
GAL.
PER
MIN.
.5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
75
100
28.7
115
34.3
123.9
4.6
16.0
60.0
115
7.9
28.5
102.7
1.8
6.5
23.5
49.7
84.8
128
2.3
7.0
14.0
28.0
46.0
69.0
92.0
.58
2.1
7.6
16.1
27.4
41.4
58
98.7
149
 
1.5
4.8
9.0
15.0
23.0
32.0
60.0
78.0
175
 
 
1.3
3.1
6.0
9.0
13.0
21.0
32.0
69.0
115
 
 
1.9
4.1
7.0
10.5
14.8
25.1
38.0
80.5
137
 
 
 
 
2.2
3.3
4.6
7.8
11.7
24.9
42.4
64.1
89.9
120
153
 
 
 
 
.57
.86
1.2
2.0
3.1
6.5
11.2
16.9
24
32
40
50
61
129
 
 
 
 
.27
.40
.57
.97
1.5
3.1
5.3
8.0
11.2
14.9
19
24
29
61
104
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
.43
.92
1.6
2.4
3.3
4.4
5.6
7.0
8.5
18
31
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
.39
.66
1.0
1.4
1.9
2.4
3.0
3.6
7.6
13
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
.48
.64
.83
1.0
1.2
2.6
4.5
.5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
75
100